The wine-making is a leading economic industry. Differently than other Sicilian provinces, the field here particularly flourished in the Middle Ages. The Nero d’Avola and Spumante wines are the major labels. A most famous herbal alcoholic digestivo drink is also produced on the area.

Craft is, equally, a field of recognized importance; it spans such traditional activities as pipe making (making use of Erica Arborea briar), confectionery (notably the torrone), glass processing and decoration, wood working and restoration, and embroidery.

An intense mining activity was recorded in the past century, notably related to sulphur extraction. Oil – most drilled off Marina di Ragusa’s shore – is refined at the petrochemical plant in Gela, its output accounting for a considerable percentage of the internal consume.

Agricultural remains an outstanding source of income and job; the province’s large estates are mainly cultivated with vindes, corn, olive and almond trees, and used for grazing.